We can all get a stink about ourselves when we’re working hard or spending time in the heat. A small number of people, however, are doomed to emit a constant, unpleasant smell. There’s an enzyme in the body responsible for breaking down the chemical trimethylaminuria, which comes from digesting eggs, beans, and fish – some really stinky foods.
A mutated FMO3 gene prevents the enzyme from being produced which results in someone suffering from a strong, noticeable body odor that people have called similar to rotting fish. It’s a rare occurrence, happening in less than one percent of the population. Thankfully.
Two People in One Body
A chimera is a mythical beast that is a combination of several different animals – lions, birds, dragons, snakes. They differ based on the area they're from. Chimerism is also present in humans, though it's a little different. It happens when a person has two sets of genomes, from when a twin is partially absorbed by the other twin in the womb.
It manifests in a variety of different ways, such as heterochromia, but true chimerism is quite rare, with only a hundred people in the world exhibiting it. Researchers believe there may be many more, but it can be difficult to determine.
Super Strong Children
For most of us, getting big and strong requires working out the right way, eating the right food, and a bunch of other things. Sleep is a big one. For people who have inactive myostatin genes, however, it requires nothing at all. Well documented in mice and cattle, children who have this mutation are born swole, possessing bigger muscles and greater strength.
There hasn't been a great deal of research done on the condition, but so far there are no long-term health issues associated with it. People with this condition also tend to have reduced body fat, though increased muscular strength isn't always part of the deal.
Want More Hair? You Got It
For most people, having hair on their heads, chins, chests, and maybe legs is good enough. For people with Ambras syndrome, they're going to have much more. It can potentially cause hair all over their bodies, but each person usually has it isolated to certain places. It can, however, cover them from head to toe, which is known as hypertrichosis, or “werewolf syndrome.”
The syndrome is quite rare – it has affected only about fifty people since the Middle Ages. The responsible gene behind this one is TRPS1, a mutation that disrupts messages sent to cells developing follicles.
Gut Fermentation Syndrome
None of us like to be hungover, even if it was for a good reason. But people who have Auto-brewery syndrome, otherwise known as gut fermentation syndrome, will always be hungover. Sometimes it takes a little bit of alcohol, sometimes it takes none at all.
The syndrome occurs when your gut produces an excess of saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is a form of yeast. The yeast then sits in the GI tract, which will ferment things and produce ethanol, a form of alcohol. As you might expect, this leads to the absorption of that alcohol, and constantly being drunk or hungover.